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高速加工中心的数控系统概述

日期:2017-08-10 作者: 人气:1899

高(gao)速(su)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心是一种可(ke)以(yi)对加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)进(jin)(jin)行高(gao)速(su)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)一种工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)具能够(gou)如此(ci)快速(su)的(de)(de)(de)进(jin)(jin)行工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)除了(le)因为高(gao)速(su)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精密(mi)度(du)和成熟的(de)(de)(de)技(ji)术(shu)之外(wai)更(geng)多的(de)(de)(de)还是得(de)利与其优秀的(de)(de)(de)数控(kong)系统(tong),在(zai)当前的(de)(de)(de)机床(chuang)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)行业中(zhong)为视(shi)线高(gao)速(su)稳定的(de)(de)(de)高(gao)精度(du)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)运行快速(su)且(qie)功能强大的(de)(de)(de)计(ji)算机数控(kong)系统(tong)是必不可(ke)少,需要注意的(de)(de)(de)是高(gao)速(su)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)数控(kong)系统(tong)必须能够(gou)足够(gou)快地处(chu)理数控(kong)程序代(dai)码段(duan)以(yi)保持(chi)程序中(zhong)规定的(de)(de)(de)进(jin)(jin)给(ji)速(su)度(du)。

 

高速加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心在实际运行中(zhong)是(shi)计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)用(yong)(yong)于测量(liang)一(yi)(yi)次工(gong)(gong)(gong)作台的(de)(de)(de)实际位置并发(fa)出(chu)一(yi)(yi)次进给命令所(suo)用(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)时(shi)间,对于伺(si)服周期(qi)和(he)代码段处理时(shi)间是(shi)计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)两(liang)个重(zhong)要参数及其概念。计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)处理并完成一(yi)(yi)条加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)指令代码段规定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)位移(yi)所(suo)花费的(de)(de)(de)时(shi)间。 计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数控(kong)系(xi)统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)这两(liang)个参数对于高速加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心来(lai)说非常(chang)重(zhong)要,因为他们将决定(ding)机(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)速度和(he)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)精度。在这里(li),精度意味着(zhe)在采用(yong)(yong)线性插补(bu)时(shi),用(yong)(yong)直线段来(lai)逼近零件轮(lun)廊所(suo)允许(xu)的(de)(de)(de)最大(da)误差。

 

我们可以(yi)(yi)看到在高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)加(jia)工中计(ji)算机(ji)数控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)必(bi)须(xu)(xu)保(bao)证(zheng)形成精确(que)的(de)加(jia)工轨(gui)(gui)迹,另外,在用(yong)直线段(duan)来(lai)逼近零件轮廊时,为(wei)了保(bao)证(zheng)精度,直线段(duan)势必(bi)很短,从而使得零件程序变(bian)得很长。基于此,计(ji)算机(ji)数控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)需(xu)要一(yi)个32位的(de)微处理(li)器(qi),有(you)时甚至需(xu)要多(duo)个微处理(li)器(qi),以(yi)(yi)完成高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)插补(bu)、高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)段(duan)处理(li)和良(liang)好(hao)的(de)待(dai)加(jia)工轨(gui)(gui)迹监(jian)(jian)控(kong)(kong)(Look Ahead)功能(neng)。为(wei)了能(neng)预先知道刀具路径以(yi)(yi)避免在拐角(jiao) 处出现(xian)事故,计(ji)算机(ji)数控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)最好(hao)是(shi)具有(you)较(jiao)多(duo)段(duan)加(jia)工 NC代码轨(gui)(gui)迹监(jian)(jian)控(kong)(kong)的(de)能(neng)力,这(zhei)与司机(ji)必(bi)须(xu)(xu)有(you)良(liang)好(hao)的(de)视野 范围才能(neng)高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)驾(jia)驶一(yi)辆汽车有(you)些类似。 目前(qian)所(suo)有(you)较(jiao)高(gao)(gao)水平的(de)计(ji)算机(ji)数控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)都具有(you)待(dai)加(jia)工轨(gui)(gui)迹监(jian)(jian)控(kong)(kong)能(neng)力。所(suo)谓待(dai)加(jia)工轨(gui)(gui)迹监(jian)(jian)控(kong)(kong),就是(shi)计(ji)算机(ji)数控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)在控(kong)(kong)制加(jia)工的(de)同时扫(sao)描(miao)待(dai)加(jia)工的(de)数控(kong)(kong)代码,看刀具路径是(shi)否有(you)方(fang)向上的(de)突然改变(bian),如果计(ji)算机(ji)数控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)发现(xian)前(qian)面(mian)必(bi)须(xu)(xu)改变(bian)进给方(fang)向时,自(zi)动执行加(jia)减速(su)(su)程序,以(yi)(yi)避免高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)加(jia)工中心(xin)偏离程序中规(gui)定的(de)切削(xue)加(jia)工路径。


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